With the progress of society, the requirements for battery energy storage in various social occasions continue to increase. In the past few decades, many battery technologies have made great progress, and the development of lead-acid batteries has also encountered many opportunities and challenges. In this context, scientists and engineers worked together to add carbon to the negative active material of lead-acid batteries, and the lead-carbon battery, an upgraded version of lead-acid batteries, was born.
Carbon enhanced lead acid battery is a kind of lead-acid battery, which is made by adding carbon materials to the negative electrode of lead-acid batteries. Carbon is a very magical element with the most abundant types of compounds. Its addition greatly improves the charge and discharge performance while retaining the original power density of lead-acid batteries. At the same time, carbon lead-acid battery has high safety and reliability, which can make up for the deficiencies of ordinary carbon lead-acid battery that cannot cope with various complex working conditions.
The carbon particles we add to the lead negative electrode will form a conductive network structure, which is used under energy storage conditions. The charge-discharge cycle service life of advanced lead-carbon batteries can reach several times that of lead-acid batteries. In terms of environmental protection, carbon lead-acid battery are environmentally friendly and can achieve 100% battery recycling. The main advantages of this network structure are as follows:
Provide reaction centers: new reactive centers are formed on the surface of these carbon particles;
Form a conductive network to reduce polarization;
Form a smaller and uniform mass transfer network to promote the uniform progress of the electrochemical reaction on the surface and inside of the electrode, thereby reducing the concentrated precipitation effect of PbSO4 on the surface;
As a heterogeneous material, it hinders the growth of PbSO4 particles and makes them evenly distributed.
Improve the capacity and power characteristics of the battery through the capacitive effect of carbon.
Based on the above network structure, the lead-carbon battery advantages are to effectively suppress the sulfation trend of the negative electrode, which significantly improves the battery service life. Not only that, the production process of lead-carbon batteries has no essential difference compared with traditional lead-acid batteries. Thus, there is no need to change the now mature process, and it is easy to achieve scale production, especially for the long-life and low-cost requirements of energy storage batteries.
Moreover, carbon itself has good electrical conductivity and capacitance characteristics, so lead-carbon battery has better low-temperature start-up capabilities, charge acceptance capabilities, and high-current charge-discharge performance than traditional lead-acid batteries. When working with high current: The capacitive carbon material plays a "buffer" role. When the lead-carbon battery is charged and discharged with frequent instantaneous high-current, the current is mainly released or received by the carbon material with capacitive characteristics. At this time, the impact of the large current received by the lead metal negative electrode is small, so it is not like the traditional lead acid batteries, "negative sulfation" occurs rapidly under high current, which effectively prolongs the service life of the battery; when working at low current: It is mainly worked by the negative electrode of the sponge lead to continuously provide energy. The energy stored in the carbon by the capacitance energy due to the impact of the large current will also react with the nearby lead, and the reaction is gradually homogenized.
For lead-carbon batteries for sale, there are many types of added carbon: carbon black, activated carbon, graphene, graphite, carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes. The main functions they can provide for lead-carbon batteries are electrical and thermal conductivity; network pore structure, providing specific surface area required for the reaction, and electric double-layer capacitance. It can be said that the development of lead-carbon battery technology has given carbon materials a stage to display their talents.
Lead-carbon battery is a new type of super battery that combines lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors: it not only takes advantage of the instant large-capacity charging of supercapacitors but also takes advantage of the specific energy advantages of lead-acid batteries.
Lead-carbon battery is a mixture of asymmetric supercapacitors and lead-acid batteries using the internal parallel connection. As a new type of super battery, a lead-carbon battery is a combination of lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors, which is also a kind of dual-function energy storage battery with both capacitive and battery characteristics. Therefore, it not only takes advantage of the instant power and large capacity charging of supercapacitors but also takes advantage of the energy advantages of lead-acid batteries, which can be fully charged in one hour and has a good charge and discharge performance. Due to the use of lead-carbon battery technology, the performance of the lead-carbon battery is far superior to traditional lead-acid batteries, so the lead-carbon battery can be used in new energy vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles, electric bicycles, and other fields; it can also be used in the field of new energy storage, such as wind power generation and energy storage.
Battery technology is the key to restricting the development of the energy storage industry. Lead-acid batteries are an ancient and practical battery technology. The new generation of lead-carbon batteries produced by the optimization of the introduction of capacitive carbon has become an important help for this magical battery technology to continue the legend in the new era. With the advantages of strong charge acceptance, safety and reliability, and low manufacturing cost, under the background of the widespread use of renewable energy and the continuous expansion of the energy storage market, lead-carbon batteries will become another development direction of energy storage batteries after lithium-ion batteries and flow batteries.
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